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Ever wondered how a gear-reduction planetary system works? With the ring-gear stationary, the four small planetary gears spin clockwise around the sun gear. With a 68-tooth ring gear and a 20-tooth sun gear, the formula is: (Ring/Sun) 1 = gear reduction. As an example, (68/20) 1 = 4.4:1. This means the torque from the starter is multiplied by 4.4:1 (minus frictional losses), creating between 150 lb-ft and upwards of 250 lb-ft of torque.